Apple’s 140w GaN Charger Uses USB C PD3.1(2021)

16-inch MacBook Pro (2021)is equipped with a gallium nitride (GaN) 140-watt USB C to MagSafe 3 cable, which complies with the USB-C Power Delivery 3.1 standard.

This standard is very new, and regulators refer to it as the USB PD R3.1 specification. This will be a big innovation, so we need to know what this specification is and how it is good for us

What are the Advantages of USB PD and QC Charging Technology?

usb pc 3.1

USB Power Delivery (USB PD) is a  new fast charge standard that was introduced by the USB Implementers Forum.

It is an industry-standard open specification that provides high-speed charging with variable voltage up to 20V using intelligent device negotiation up to 5A at 100W.

  • Its voltages and currents are higher.
  • It allows reverse charging.
  • It has a maximum current power of 5A.
  • Works with the connector type USB-C.

Qualcomm's Quick Charge (QC). Devices with built-in QC technology can safely use higher voltages than the standard while still using the same USB cable you may have for many years.

  • It is found in devices with Qualcomm chipsets.
  • Its voltages and currents are lower.
  • It has a maximum current power of 4.6A.
  • Works with the connector types USB-A, Micro USB and USB-C.

(USB BC1.2)VS(USB PD1.0)VS(USB PD 2.0)VS (USB PD3.0)VS (USB PD 3.1)

usb pd 3.1

USB BC 1.2

BC1.2 (Battery Charging v1.2) is a protocol formulated by the BC (Battery Charging) group, which is mainly used to regulate battery charging requirements

Due to the current limit of 500mA, the fast charge requirement cannot be met. Therefore, BC1.2 introduces a charging port identification mechanism, which mainly includes the following USB port types:

1. Standard Downstream Port (SDP)

  • Supports USB protocol, the maximum current is 500mA,

2. Dedicated charging port (DCP)

  • Not support data protocol, supports fast charging, and can provide large current. 

3. Charging Downstream Port (CDP)

  • Supports both data protocol and fast charge

USB PD 1.0

USB Power Delivery 1.0 (USB PD 1.0), released in July 2012,provides more power and greater flexibility than traditional USB charging

  • Allows transmission of up to 100W of power 
  • The transmission power is increased from 7.5W to a maximum of 100W, the output voltage is up to 20V, and the maximum current is up to 5A.
  • The transmission power can be switched, (18W/36W/60W /100W).

USB PD 2.0

The USB Power Delivery 2.0 fast charging standard, which was shown to the public in August 2014.

  • The maximum charging power is 100W, and there are voltages of 5V3A, 9V3A, 12V3A, 15V3A, and 20V5A.
  • Use type-c port to charge, you can charge mobile phones, tablets

USB PD 3.0

The USB Power Delivery 3.0 fast charging standard announced in November 2015.

  • Added PPS (programmable power supply) function
  • Increase the recognition function of equipment software and hardware
  • Adds the function of certificate and digital signature.
  • Obtain voltages 5V3A, 9V3A, 12V3A, 15V3A, 20V5A, and its maximum charging power reaches 100W.

*PD3.0 is an extension of PD2.0, and PD3.0 adds device software and hardware identification function and PPS function

USB PD 3.1

the USB Power Delivery 3.1 fast-charging standard, which was presented to the public in May 2021, and is an improved version of USB PD 3.0 PPS-divides the power into two ranges: the standard power range (SPR for short) and the extended power range (EPR for short)

  • Supports power levels up to 140W, 180W and 240W
  • Add AVS:15-28V, 5A; 15-36V 5A; 15-48V 5A
  • EPR: 28V 5A; 36V 5A; 48V 5A
  • Meet more high-power equipment charging

Conclusion

The USB PD fast charging standard has been formulated for a long time. Each update and release will improve different functions and features. USB PD 3.1 is suitable for mobile phones, laptops, but also for displays, servers, power tools, security POE power supplies and other fields with strong strength.